If you want to calculate the outcome of battles, actually I figured out the combat system using TW1 simulator, to a high degree of accuracy, and I use my formula extensively. Prepare for a very long post
Assume you have 100 axes and 100 light cavalry attacking 300 spears and 300 swords.
The game works like this: First the ratio of attacking troops is calculated byt heir attack type. 100 axes have 45X100=4500 general attack, 100 light cavalry have 130X100=13000 cavalry attack. The total is 13000+4500=17500. So 4500/17500 =25.7% is general offense, while 74.3% is cavalry offense. The 100 axemen are pit against 25.7% of the defender's general defense, while 100 light cavalry are pit against 74.3% of cavalry defense. It is as if the defender splits his troops into either general or cavalry defense based on the attacking ratio.
Now we look at the first matchup, 100 axes vs 25.7% of general defense. The defender's total general defense, assuming no wall, and no other bonuses on either side, is (300X25+300X55)=24000. 25.7% X 24000=6168 general defense is pit against 4500 general attack from axes. The defender wins, and the formula for the attack power that the winner loses is loser's power X (loser's power/winner's power)^0.5. In this case, the defender loses troops worth 4500 X (4500/6168)^0.5=3483. Since each spearman+swordsman has 25+55=80 general defense, the defender loses 3483/80= 48 spears and 48 swords. The ratio of lost units is always equal in such a matchup.
Now consider the cavalry matchup. 74.3% of cavalry defense 74.3%X(300X45+300+5)=11145. This is pit against 13000 attack from LC. The attacker wins, and loses 11145X(11145/13000)^0.5 = 10319power, equivalent to 10319/130=79 LCs.
The defender lost all his troops in the second matchup, and in the first matchup where 25.7%X300=77 spears and swords fought, he lost 48 each, so he has 29 spears and 29 swords left. The attacker lost all his axes in the first matchup and has 100-79=21 LCs left. These remaining troops are once again pit against each other. 21X130=2730 cavalry attack vs 29X45+29X5=1450 cavalry defense. The attacker wins, and loses 1450X (1450/2730)^0.5=1057 attack power, equivalent to 8 LCs. Hence he loses 8 LCs and has 13 left.
In the final battle report, it will show that the attacker lost 100 axes and 87 LCs, the defender lost everything, and the attacker is victorious.
Of course this formula isn't perfect but it gives very accurate predictions.
I am curious if anyone else has worked on an offline simulator.
I've started one myself but am having some problems and would like to talk about it with others who have worked on a simulator or understand the combat well.